The Interplay of Final Values Across World Religions and Philosophies

Document Type : Original Research Article


Ph. D. Graduate in Philosophy, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia


The criterion of proof and good argument ultimately coincides with one final value or another. Philosophers and psychologists pick out from five to twenty known final values (reasons to live, final goals, final goods, human life ends). Each religion can be considered as the art of realizing a certain final value. Final values are the prisms through which we look at the world. Each value reveals and reflects a different dimension of being, a different aspect of life and personality. Final value defines a view of the world, and does not follow from a predetermined world picture. Complementarism is the recognition that different worldview systems are simultaneously true and complement each other. Any final values can tactically contradict each other simply because they are different. But strategically, most of them complement each other. The world is multidimensional, and all world pictures are projections of a multidimensional figure onto a particular plane. These projections may be very different and even seem incompatible, but they all reflect the same thing. In one aspect the Creator is visible, in another not, in a third it does not matter, in a fourth there is uncertainty on the matter, and in a fifth it is impossible to even ask the question. So, in any dialogue, especially in a dialogue between different worldviews it is important, before putting forward and colliding various arguments, to make sure that the corresponding positions do not reflect different dimensions of being and therefore do not complement each other.


Main Subjects

Chisholm, Roderick. 1972. “Objectives and Intrinsic Value.” In Jenseits von Sein und Nichtsein, edited by Rudolf Haller, 261-269. Graz: Akademisches Druck- und Verlagsanstalt.
Chisholm, Roderick. 2005. “Intrinsic Value.” In Recent Work on Intrinsic Value, edited by Toni Rønnow-Rasmussen & Michael J. Zimmerman, 171-179. Dordrecht: Springer.
Frankena, William K. 1973. Ethics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
GoĢmez-Lobo, Alfonso. 2002. Morality and the Human Goods. Washington, DC: Georgetown U.P.
Maslow, Abraham H. 1966. The Psychology of Science: A Reconnaissance. Harper & Row.
Tikhonravov, Yury. 2022. “Thoughts on the List Theory.” Accessed online (2023) at: